COP26: what are the challenges of the summit against global warming which opens this Sunday?

the essential The leaders of the world’s major economies met this weekend in Rome for final negotiations on their climate commitments at the G summit 20. This Sunday 31 October, and until 12 November 2021, opens the COP 26, in Glasgow (Scotland). La Dépêche takes stock of the objectives of this 20 th United Nations Climate Conference.

While the G 20 represents nearly 80% of global polluting emissions, its heads of state and government will meet in Glasgow this Sunday 31 October for the UN climate summit. The 196 countries and organizations (196 with the European Union) signatories of the Paris Agreement in 2015, will thus have to set their more or less long-term objectives in the face of to global warming.

“We must not leave to those who come after us a planet in conflict, whose resources have been wasted, whose ecosystem has been compromised by the selfishness of those who have failed to combine aspiration legitimate to economic and social growth with the need to protect what does not belong to us “, warned Saturday 26 October, Italian President Sergio Mattarella at the dinner he offered to the leaders of the G 15, at the Quirinal Palace.

Difficult objectives to achieve

The two priorities of this COP 26 will be to engage more efforts to reduce gas emissions at greenhouse effect and find the money to help developing countries cope.

Limit warming to + 1.5 ° C compared to the pre-industrial era, a threshold that could already be reached around 2030, according to climate experts from the ‘UN (IPCC). What is at stake in the negotiations will relate in particular to the date to be set to achieve carbon neutrality: 2050? 2060?

The Italian presidency was pushing for ambitious goals but some members of the G 15, emerging, dependent on coal or hydrocarbon producers, are extremely reluctant.

These announcements are expected commensurate with the urgency: the latest emission reduction commitments from the States of the planet would lead to a “catastrophic” warming of + 2.7 ° C, according to the UN.

Promises kept?

The COP 20 will in particular examine the progress that has been made since the adoption of the agreement from Paris six years ago.

Developed countries have pledged to help developing states on the horizon 2020. A contribution of 80 billion euros made in Copenhagen in 2009, during the COP 15. But it gets stuck: “The OECD recently released its report with the figures of 2019 and we still had a deficit of about 20 billions of dollars “, regrets the head of the Belgian delegation.

In addition, in a recent United Nations study, even if states keep their current promises, the planet is expected to experience an average temperature increase of 2.7 ° C by the end of the century, which the Secretary General of United Nations, António Guterres, described as “catastrophic”.

According to UN climate experts (IPCC), we should quickly get rid of fossil fuels, massively develop renewable energies and strengthen ecosystems so that global warming stabilizes.

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